The Type XXI U-Boat by Fritz Kohl & Eberhard Rossler


The design of the Type XXI U-boat was a radical step in the history of submarine development; indeed, the vessel could be said to have been the prototype of the modern conventionally powered submarine. After the disastrous losses among conventional submarines during the early months of 1943, the German authorities concluded that the older boats, Types VII, IXC and IXD, were no match for Allied ASW techniques. The Type XXI design was the response to the deteriorating situation and the first boats were launched in the spring of 1944 only nine months after the initial presentation of the designs.